Between 350 CE and 1300 CE, the many changes taking place, especially the Carolingian Renaissance and the emergence of universities, had a significant impact on medical and scientific (or natural philosophical) views of emotion. One of the most important trends over these centuries was an attempt to articulate the causes of emotions and their various influences on the body. We have only hints of the medical view of emotion in Late Antiquity and the early medieval West. Those hints show that there was no single or even primary medical approach to emotion. By the high Middle Ages, however, during what is often called ‘the translation movement’ in the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries, the Galenic system of medicine became the dominant one in the West. Two terms for what we now call emotions – the passions and the accidens anima (the accidents of the soul) – appeared in high and later medieval medical and philosophical texts, revealing the fluid concepts about internal states. Theologians, scholars, and doctors debated the definitions of these two terms and some worked to develop practical treatments for disordered emotions.